IUPAC name: 2,4-Dinitrophenol
Molecular formula: C6H4N2O5.
Molar Mass: 184.106
Density: 1.683 g/cm³
Melting Point:108 °C, 381 K, 226 °F
Boiling Point: 113 °C, 386 K, 235 °F
What is DNP?
For purposes of this article we will stick to the physiological application of DNP. If I had to describe DNP in one word…poison. DNP prevents normal chemical reactions at the cellular level. It impedes the normal function of cellular metabolism.
How does DNP work?
DNP makes changes in our metabolism. Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions in our bodies that keep us alive. Our bodies metabolize nutrients to provide us with energy. Oxidation involves the transfer of electrons between atoms (or molecules) and releases energy. The formal name for this process is oxidative phosphorylation. When our body breaks down nutrients and absorbs then into our cells, one of the functions of the cell’s mitochondria is to produce chemical energy called ATP. In order to create ATP, mitochondria capture and use the energy released from oxidative phosphorylation.
DNP is known as a mitochondrial uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. In other words, DNP encapsulates and moves protons (ions) across cell membranes, preventing mitochondria from “processing” nutrient molecules, capturing energy via the exchange of electrons, and converting that energy to ATP. The energy released from DNP action is converted into heat energy. Without ATP to provide energy, our bodies look to alternative sources like fat reserves. The overall result is an increase in the metabolic rate by a factor of 30% to 50%.
You might wonder why the body does not use muscle as well as fat as an energy source (catabolism). One of the reasons lies with HSPs (Heat Shock Proteins). HSPs are known to maintain the shape and function of cellular proteins and promote muscle growth. HSPs go to work under circumstances where the body temperature increases, ATP is scarce, and free radicals are present. DNP does all of these things. Although some catabolism is likely to occur with DNP present, it follows that exercise combined with the release of HSPs result in the protection of muscle cells and promotion of protein synthesis.
How is DNP Dangerous?
- DNP can kill you. We discussed how DNP converts the energy from food into heat energy, which increases body temperature. Unfortunately there is no limit to how high your body temperature can get while on DNP, so it can literally “cook” you.
- DNP can cause fever, stroke, nephritis, tachycardia, respiration problems, coma, and peripheral neuritis.
- DNP is a cumulative poison, meaning that it builds up in your system every day that you take it. It takes 3 weeks to evacuate your system and by the time you have a problem, it can be too late.
- DNP causes cataracts in 1 out of every 1,000 people.
- 10% of users develop and allergic reaction that includes hives, blisters, and rashes.
- Without ATP cells start to die.
- Free radicals cause cancer.
- The EPA, NTP, ASTDR, and WHO all categorize DNP as a category 1 toxic chemical.
- We do not really know how much cellular damage DNP causes.
What are the benefits of DNP?
- Fat loss
- Anabolic rebound – After a DNP cycle the bodyis in a highly anabolic state.
- T3 reduction – If you happen to be running DNP right after an AAS
- cycle, the DNP can reduce the excessive T3 production that causes much of the
- catabolic type muscle loss post cycle.
Note: DNP can lower T3 to below optimal levels, so in some cases it may be necessary to start taking small doses of T3.
How should I take DNP?
I have a conservative stance on when to use DNP, how much to use, and how long to use it.
Some people argue that DNP should be used on cycle so as to protect muscle. My contention is that DNP makes you feel like crap, and it can detract from lifting at your best while on cycle. If I am on cycle I want to be lifting hard and I do not want to worry about energy levels or heat stroke.
Other people argue that DNP should be used well after PCT. My only concern would be low energy levels and possible T3 issues. These concerns are manageable via things like ECA stacks and T3 supplementation.
My most preferred time to run DNP is when I start PCT. I still have energy and strength from my cycle and I avoid the whole catabolic post cycle phase. In addition, I have a nice little anabolic rebound at the end of my DNP run and I get to see the results from all my hard work on gear.
DNP is cumulative and it takes three weeks to clear your system. Do notBUMP up your dose because you think you can handle more. Do not use drugs or drink alcohol.
Please note that you do not need to “feel” DNP for it to be working. People have different tolerance levels, even for poisons. You can only get so much DNP into your system (before you die), so you can choose to take a higher dose short cycle or lower dose long cycle. Regardless, by the end of the cycle you will feel the heat and toxicity.
Low Dose Long Cycle
Start with a dose of 200mg per day [100 mg every morning / 100 mg
every evening]. Run it for two or three weeks.
Day 1 – 14: 200 mg ED
Day 15 – 21: 200 mg ED*
*Experienced users may choose to run the cycle for an additional week.
Total DNP consumption for long cycle: (2,800 to 4,200 mg)
High Dose Short Cycle
Start with a dose of 200 mg per day [100 mg every morning / 100 mg
every evening]. Within 2 to 4 days you should know if you have an allergy.
Day 1 – 4: 200 mg ED
Day 5 – 9: 400 mg ED
Day 10 – 11: 400 mg ED*
*Experienced users may choose to go above the max recommended daily dose of 400 mg
and run the cycle for an additional couple of days.
Total DNP consumption for short cycle: (2,800 to 4,000 mg)
What are common sides to DNP?
- Discomfort and sweating
- Yellow bodily fluids
- Muscle Soreness
- Allergic Reactions
- Carbohydrate Cravings
- Vomiting (a good sign that you should stop)
What food and supplements should I take while on a DNP cycle?
You may lose your senses of taste and smell so this is a good time to teach yourself how to eat without using condiments and all the other crap you dont need.
- Water – One or two gallons a day. Dehydration is the leading cause of DNP problems, including death.
- Fruit – Glycogen will be depleated. Fructose is good.
- Protein – Diet should be heavy on protein.
- Fiber – DNP can be rough so you may want to regulate (pun intended).
- Complex Carbs – Carbs will make you hot. You should try to time your carb intake so that you are not eating carbs before workouts or before sleep.
- Multi vitamin – You are likely to be on a rescticted diet and you will need to supplement.
- Antioxidants – To stop the free radicals
- Electolytes – V8 is good.
- Melatonin – If necessary, to help you sleep.
- ECA stack – If necessary, to boost your energy levels.
DNP 7 days cycles :
the first 3 days – 200 mg per day;
the next 4 days – 400 mg per day (which means you should take 400 mg for 4 days).
2,4-Dinitrophenol, more commonly known as DNP, is a solid yellow crystaline that has a sweet, musty odor. It is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally in the environment.
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) has many uses, 2,4-dinitrophenol is most notorious as a dangerous yet effective weight loss agent and fat burner in the hardcore underground bodybuilding supplement industry.
2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP In The World Of Bodybuilding
Originally used as an ignitor for TNT as well as a pesticide, researchers at Stanford University discovered that DNP causes weight loss in 1933. The late pioneer bodybuilding Dan Duchaine wrote about DNP for fat reducing weight loss and DNP has been used in the hardcore bodybuilding underground for fat and weight loss for decades.
Compared to other thermogenic, fat reducing, and weight loss agents such as the epederine/caffeine/aspirin (ECA) stack would boost the user’s metabolism 3% or the Clenbuterol/Cytomel T-3 stack which would boost metabolism 5-10%, DNP was seen to raise metabolism up to a relatively controlled 50% making DNP a seemingly miracle supplement. While clen/t-3, ECA, and others significantly raised the body’s temperature, DNP raised internal temperature 2-4 degrees F.
The main problem with DNP is its severe side effects. Exercise during a DNP cycle should be kept to light workouts. DNP has not been seen to cause cancer, but death is a posibility if DNP raises the user’s body temperature too high as there is not limit to how hot DNP can make the user’s body. The lethal dose of DNP is only 4 times the dose that is effective in losing weight and fat loss.
DNP is not an appetite suppressant, so a user will be hungry, and DNP users will especially crave carbohydrates due to glucose inefficiency. Some users may be allergic, and less than 1% of women who used DNP in the 1930’s for fat reducing and weight loss developed cataracts which led to the 1938 FDA 2,4-dinitrophenol DNP ban as a weight loss drug.
DNP since has been used off and on with scrutiny from within and outside the bodybuilding industry. Protesters of DNP note that DNP is not a forgiving chemical. Understanding what the effects, risks, and limitations of the substance are before trying to acquire and use DNP promote their hopes to deter potential DNP users, but the effectiveness of DNP to help with fat reduction and ultimately weight loss is hard to deny. A danger is the fact that DNP has a cumulative effect with a 36-hour half-life. DNP takes up to 48 hours to flush from a user’s system. Many bodybuilders adapt the “more is better” theory to their use of DNP severely increasing their risk of harmful side effects and possibly death.
Weight Loss with DNP – Scientifically Speaking
DNP accomplishes the astounding boost in metabolic rate via inhibition of the F0F1 ATP synthase molecule, located in the inner wall of each mitochondrion. While the electron transport chain still functions to pump hydrogen ions into the inter-membrane space, the coupling of the proton gradient to ATP production is rendered impossible by DNP. As a result, ATP production is dramatically reduced, and the energy is instead thrown off as heat. This results in an astounding production of heat; when using dinitrophenol, the athlete will radiate so much heat that it is uncomfortable to be within any proximity of them. Luckily, this heat does not fully contribute to body temperature increases, and is instead thrown off from the entire body surface, particularly the head. As a result, adequate doses of DNP will usually only elevate body temperature by about 1-1.5?C. This is a good thing for your central nervous system and other delicate tissues. If the heat produced by ATP contributed in a more direct matter to body temperature, effective doses for fat loss would cause body temperature increase. Nonetheless, overheating is a very real danger.
Under these conditions, much of the food that we eat could not be used for ATP synthesis and we lose weight. However, too much inhibitor and we could make too little ATP for life. The difference between weight loss and death is only a small concentration change in dinitrophenol, making the drug dangerous. Simply put, this means that while eating your normal diet, you will have somewhere between 20% and 40% reduction of calories.
Risks of using 2,4-Dinitrophenol DNP for Weight Loss
Hearing all of these wonderful things probably has you wondering what the side effects and risks are. They are quite formidable and contribute to making DNP one of the most intolerable (though effective) drugs used in bodybuilding.
CONSUMING DNP FOR WEIGHT LOSS PURPOSES IS NOT RECOMMENDED WHATSOEVER, but if you are exposed to it, you suffer any of these side effects, and they are extremely bothersome, it is the recommendation to cease contact immediately and see your physician as soon as possible. Do not attempt to continue the exposure at that point.
Safe and Effective DNP Dosage…
…at least as safe as it gets when using DNP for weight loss. Dosing is highly individualized and most generalizations tend to collapse quite quickly. As a result, none will be attempted. Start on the low end of the scale and see how you react. It is not recommended to take more than 300mg at any one time.
Getting the right dosage of DNP is rather easy to do although the importance of proper dosage cannot be overstated. It is far better for one to err on the side of too little rather than too much, certainly in the case of the novice who does not know if they are allergic to the substance.
As stated before, the commonly used dosage by bodybuilders and other reasonably lean persons is 4-6mg/kg of bodyweight. This would mean that a 100-kilogram bodybuilder would use anywhere from 400-600 mg per day. Experienced users commonly are found using up to 800mg/day relatively safely, and beginners sometimes find that they enjoy 3-5 pounds of fat loss per week with as little as 200mg/day.
So, a person weighing 200 lbs would weigh about 91 kg. So 4mgs per kg of body weight would be the equivalent of 364 mgs of DNP per day. Since DNP comes in 200 mg capsules, the user would take one cap twice daily to stay within range. The lethal dose is a mere 32mg/kg…only 4 times the max effective dose of 800mg/day. The addage “more is better” does not ring true in this case. Heed the warning!
DNP should be taken in 8 to 12-day cycles to avoid liver and kidney damage and to allow your muscles to recover. Bodybuilders typically look their best 48 to 96 hours after cessation of usage. A 10-day cycle of 400mg per day (200mg twice daily) would be a typical effective dose for a 225lb man. This allows for a total of two weeks from start to finish with a 4-day recovery period. Positive results have been seen with a lower dose, but conversely, better results have been achieved safely with a higher dose. Positive results have been seen in users taking 200mg to 800mg per day. Keep the formula of 4-6mg/kg of body weight in mind.
Since DNP has this inhibiting effect, glycolosis is inhibited as well, causing a diabetic effect due to the conversion of glucose without insulin, so you may have heard that people take insulin with DNP. This will counter act the symptoms of lethargy and lack of energy due to DNP’s use. Other supplementation is also suggested to limit side effects as stated later in this column.
Timetable of Effects and Symptoms of a DNP Cycle
DNP CYCLE Day 1 -None; possibly elevated carbohydrate cravings and/or temperature elevation.
DNP CYCLE Day 2 – T4-T3 conversion has begun to decrease; lethargy possible. Temperature should be elevated, and radiation of heat is noticeable.
DNP CYCLE Days 3-5 – Body temperature is elevated, with all the effects that one expects from DNP use. In addition, water retention usually becomes manifest here.
DNP CYCLE Days 6-10 – Definite water retention, along with other symptoms of use; user most likely feels fatter due to having “flatter” muscles (mainly the result of glycogen depletion) and holding water. Final DNP dose taken in the evening of Day 10.
DNP CYCLE Days 11-12 – DNP is clearing the system slowly. All symptoms are still present.
DNP CYCLE Days 13-14 – Water should be gone by now, or getting there. Mild diuretics will expedite this. The user will probably notice perceived greater cardiovascular and muscular endurance.
96 Hours After Final Dose – This is when someone tends to look their best. Their glycogen stores are usually compensated at this point and the retained water should be gone.
Information displayed for educational purposes only